Discussion Responses

Discussion Responses

There are two discussions here that need to be responded to thoroughly. Responses must be on APA format 150+words 1-2 legitimate verifiable sources per response.

CIS5554 discussion 1 post responses.

Respond to the colleagues posts regarding:

“Project Constraints” Please respond to the following:

• Designing software deliverables may require an analysis of historical project experiences within the organization. Explain how past experiences of previous projects within the organization as well as existing project constraints impact and influence the design of software project deliverables. Include an example to support your answer.

• Analyze how a constrained solution box may help end users and upper management understand the limits of requirements, resources, and the schedule of a project.

DT’s post states the following:

“Project Constraints” Please respond to the following:

• Designing software deliverables may require an analysis of historical project experiences within the organization. Explain how past experiences of previous projects within the organization as well as existing project constraints impact and influence the design of software project deliverables. Include an example to support your answer.

An analysis of historical project experiences within the organization is important in coming up with project estimates and it helps project managers to better guage productivity needed for software deliverables for current projects.  Documentation of what went wrong, what went right, and what could have been done better should be done at the end of each project and  kept as “lessons learned” to assist project managers with future projects across the organization. By successfully identifying risk factors or project constraints, it gives project managers the ability to avoid potential costly or lengthy pitfalls on current projects or future projects based on mistakes made in earlier projects.  For example, a project that I once worked on (not related to software) required so many personnel and man hours to setup and install test equipment needed in test labs.  The initial project was underestimated and the schedule was pushed to the right as a result of this.  So we knew going forward that similar projects needed to have a specific number of personnel with the right number of hours dedicated to perform the project with a reasonable allocated time period when it came to scheduling.

• Analyze how a constrained solution box may help end users and upper management understand the limits of requirements, resources, and the schedule of a project.

Having a constrained solution box rather than using out-of-box solutions gives end users and upper management the ability to understand custom limitations of the project as it pertains to requirements, resources, an scheduling of a project.  By having the margins identified, it leaves less opportunities for mistakes and gives everyone a better understanding on planning and the level of activities needed to successfully produce project deliverables.  Also, it is more advantageous to have a constrained solution box because it cuts down on the time needed for analyzing and coming up with viable project solutions.

CIS554 discussion 2 post responses.

Respond to the colleagues posts regarding:

“Estimation Techniques” Please respond to the following:

• There are various methods that may be used to determine activity estimates with respect to resources, costs, and durations. Choose at least three estimation techniques that may be used for determining activity estimates for an IT project. Describe the pros and cons of each. Determine the most efficient estimation technique for an IT project; include an example or scenario to support your response.

• Describe the accuracy level and the risk level of effort and the activities associated with each estimation technique you chose in Part 1 of this discussion. Determine the technique that would be efficient for the following:

1. Estimating a source code based project

2. Systems development project

3. High-risk software project

AJ’s post states the following:

• There are various methods that may be used to determine activity estimates with respect to resources, costs, and durations. Choose at least three estimation techniques that may be used for determining activity estimates for an IT project. Describe the pros and cons of each. Determine the most efficient estimation technique for an IT project; include an example or scenario to support your response.

The three estimation techniques that I think are worth mentioning that are used to determine activity estimates for IT related projects are parametric estimates, reserve analysis and work breakdown structure (WBS).

Parametric estimate is a technique when project managers use the relationship between variables of a project activity specific to time or cost estimates. As a project manager it is their responsibility to conduct this estimate. The data the project manager may use can be but not limited to historical data (lessons learned), industry standards or experience that he/she brings as well as the project team. Once the data is collected there are two popular forms to interpret the data. They are a regression analysis (scatter diagram) or a learning curve. These graphical representations can easily interpret data as well as support risk decision making. This estimate is reliable if expert judgment and historical data are available. On the other hand, if either expert judgment or historical data is not available this estimate may lead a project astray.

Reserve analysis is the act in project management when the project manager identifies which activities have a substantial risk. Once this is determined it is the responsibility of the project manager to ensure that time and cost are considered. If its time, then slack/ float needs to be considered in the critical path method. If its cost, then the project manager needs to determine that those risks are either covered in the contingency reserves or management reserves. A very concerning issue about this analysis is, if there are a significant amount of activities that are unknown to the project team the reserves established will not be enough. Which may lead to project failure. An advantage of this analysis/ estimation technique if done correctly will provide estimated costs and establish a schedule duration.

The WBS is a technique used by a project manager to decompose the deliverables of a large project into smaller pieces of work called work packages. When the WBS is complete the project manager will have a list of each activity, the duration of each activity, the costs of each activity and the amount of resources needed. A major issue with developing a WBS is the time it takes to complete. For large projects, creating a WBS can take 1-3 months sometimes even longer. On the other hand, if a WBS is fully executed, the scope is fully detailed, the duration of how long it will take to accomplish as well as each resource would be assigned. If a project manager has this going into execution of a project, the project manager will have more time to guide and facilitate the project.

Project Management Institute. (2017, September 6). PMBOK® Guide Sixth Edition.

https://www.pmi.org/pmbok-guide-standards/foundational/pmbok

• Describe the accuracy level and the risk level of effort and the activities associated with each estimation technique you chose in Part 1 of this discussion. Determine the technique that would be efficient for the following:

Parametric Estimating:

• The accuracy level would be moderate

o Accuracy is based upon historical data & Industry standards

• The risk level would be moderate

o Accuracy is based upon historical data & Industry standards

• Activities

o Collect data

o Compile data

o Measure Data

o Interpret data (regression analysis or learning curve)

Reserve Analysis:

• The accuracy level would be high

o Accuracy is based up understanding each requirement and what risk are associated

• The risk level would be high

o Risk level is based upon the probability and impact that a risk may occur

• Activities

o Identify risk

o Conduct Qualitative & Quantitative Analysis

o Determine risk cost per probability and impact assessment

WBS:

• The accuracy level would be high

o Accuracy is based upon customer engagement and expert judgement

• The risk level would be high

o Risk level is based upon how much time is allocated to complete WBS and accuracy level

• Activities

o Fact finding meetings by project team with customer and end users

Of the three estimation techniques I think that the WBS would be best suited to estimate a source code-based project, systems development project or a high-risk software project. Reason being the granularity that a WBS can provide to any project is priceless. If the project has time available to complete a WBS its perfect.

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