Library, Academic Skills

Library, Academic Skills
Harvard Referencing Quick Guide
What is referencing?
Referencing is a system used in the academic community to indicate where ideas, theories,
quotes, facts and any other evidence and information used to undertake an assignment, can be
found.
Why do I need to reference my work?
• To avoid plagiarism, a form of academic theft.
• Referencing your work correctly ensures that you give appropriate credit to the
sources and authors that you have used to complete your assignment.
• Referencing the sources that you have used for your assignment demonstrates that you
have undertaken wide-ranging research in order to create your work.
• Referencing your work enables the reader to consult for themselves the same
materials that you used.
What do I need to reference?
All the information that you have used in your assignment will need to be acknowledged. It is
essential to make a note of all the details of the sources that you use for your assignment as you
go along. Harvard examples in this guide are based on guidance in:
Pears, R. & Shields, G. (2016) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 10th edn.
London: Palgrave.
The basics
Harvard is known as the Author & Date system:
1. Citations in the text of your assignment should be made following the in-text
guidelines given in the examples on the following pages.
2. A complete list of all the citations used in your text will need to be provided at the end of
your assignment. This is called your reference list or bibliography and needs to be
presented in alphabetical author/originator order.
Italics
Only the title of the source of information is italicised,
Punctuation
Harvard has no one true style of punctuation so the generally accepted rule is to be
consistent with your style of punctuation throughout the whole of yourassignment.
How to reference sources
Examples of how to reference commonly used materials are included below. If you need more
guidance, please ask the Academic Skills Tutors/Librarians for help
(academicskills@staffs.ac.uk

Type of
Resource
Format Bibliography Example In text example
Book
(1 author)
Family/Surname, Initials. (Publication year
in brackets) Book title in italics. Edition –
only include if not the first. Place of
publication: Publisher.
Hatfield, A. (2014) The complete
recovery room book. 5th edn.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hatfield (2014) argues that…’
‘quotation’ (Hatfield, 2014, p. 23)
Book
(2 or 3 authors)
Family/Surname, Initials. and
Family/Surname, Initials. (Publication year
in brackets) Book title in italics. Edition –
only include if not the first. Place of
publication: Publisher.
Allman, K. and Wilson, I.
(2011) Oxford handbook of
anaesthesia. 3rd edn. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
Allman and Wilson (2011) argue
that…
‘quotation’ (Allman and Wilson,
2011, p. 74)
Book
(4 or more authors)
Family/Surname, Initials et al. (Publication
year in brackets) Book title in italics.
Edition – only include if not the first. Place
of publication: Publisher.
Conway, N et al. (2013)
Operating department practice –
clinical pocket reference. 2nd edn.
Oxford: Pennant Health
Publishing.
As suggested by Conway et al
(2013)
‘quotation’ (Conway et al, 2013,
p. 72)
Book
(Editor/s)
Family/Surname, Initials. (ed.) or(eds.) –
in brackets for editor/s (Publication year
in brackets) Book title in italics. Place of
publication: Publisher.
Abbott, H. and Booth, H. (eds.)
(2014) Foundation for operating
department practice: essential
theory for practice. Maidenhead:
Open University Press.
It has been argued that…
(Abbott and Booth, 2014)
‘quotation’ (Abbott and Booth,
2014, p. 7)
Type of
Resource
Format Bibliography Example In text example
Book Chapter
of an edited
book
Family/Surname, Initials.
(Publication year in
brackets)’Title of chapter
in single quotation
marks’, in
Family/Surname, Initials.
(ed.) Title of the book in
italics. Place of
publication: Publisher,
pp.XX-XX.
Joyce, P. (2014) ‘Reflections for Operating Department
Practitioners’ in Abbott, H. and Booth, H. (eds.) Foundation for
operating department practice: essential theory for practice.
Maidenhead: Open University Press, pp. 129-145.
It has been suggested
that…
(Joyce, 2014)
‘quotation’ (Joyce, 2014,
p. 137)
E-book
(If we have the
printed copy
reference as a
book)
Family/Surname, Initials.
(Publication year in
brackets) Title in italics.
Available at: website URL
(date downloaded in
brackets).
Smith, B., Rawling, P. and Wicker, P. (2007) Core topics in
operating department practice: anaesthesia and critical
care. Available at:
https://ebookcentral.proquest.com
/lib/staffordshire/detail.action?docID=288619
(Downloaded: 24th February 2017)
Analysis has shown
that… (Smith, Rawling
and Wicker, 2007)
‘quotation’ (Smith,
Rawling and Wicker,
2007, p. 216)
Journal Article
(Printed)
Family/Surname, Initials.
(Year of publication in
brackets) ‘Title of article
in single quotation
marks’, Title of Journal –
capitalisation on every
word, except linking
words such as and, Issue
Information (number or
season in round
brackets), pp. page
numbers.
Wicker, P. (2010) ‘Shifting operating department practice to a
graduate workforce’, Journal of Perioperative Practice, 20(7), pp.
230-233.
Analysis has shown
that… (Wicker, 2010)
‘quotation’ (Wicker, 2010,
p. 231)
Type of
Resource
Format Bibliography Example In text example
Journal Article
(Online)
Family/Surname, Initials.
(Year of publication in
brackets) ‘Title of article in
single quotation marks’,
Title of Journal in Italics –
capitalisation on every
word, except linking words
such as and, Issue
Information (number or
season in round brackets),
pp. pages. Available at
URL (Accessed: date) OR
doi
Wright, K. (2013) ‘How do nurses solve drug calculation
problems?’, Nurse education today, 33(5), pp. 450-457. Available at:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0260691712001141
(Accessed: 20th April 2017)
Wright, K. (2013) ‘How do nurses solve drug calculation
problems?’, Nurse education today, 33(5), pp. 450-457. doi:
http://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2012.04.009
Analysis has shown that…
(Wright, 2013)
‘quotation’ (Wright, 2013,
p. 452)
Newspaper Family/Surname, Initials.
(Year of publication in
brackets) ‘Title in single
quotation marks’, Title of
newspaper in italics
capitalise first letter of
each word in title except
for linking words such as
and (edition if required in
round brackets), day
month, p.x.
Gibbons, K. (2016) ‘Nurse helpers will be able to give out drugs’, The
Times, 1 November, p. 1.
New nursing associate
roles will be created across
England. (Gibbons, 2016)
‘quotation’ (Gibbons, 2016,
p. 2)
Website Family/Surname, Initials. –
or organisation name (Year
of publication in brackets)
Title of webpage in italics.
Available at: URL
(Accessed: date of access
in brackets).
Department of Health (2017) Recovering the cost of NHS treatments
given to overseas visitors. Available at:
https://www.gov.uk/government/news/
/recovering-the-cost-of-nhs-treatments-given-to-overseas-visitors
(Accessed: 24th February 2017).
After Identifying
treatments given to
overseas visitors…
(Department of Health,
2017)…
‘quotation’ (Department of
Health, 2017, p. 4)
Type of
Resource
Format Bibliography Example In text example
Television
Programs
(viewed online)
‘Title of episode in single
quotation marks’ (Year of
broadcast in round
brackets) Title of program
series in italics, series
number ,episode number,
Name of channel,
Broadcast date day
month. Available at: URL
(Accessed: date).
‘NHS: The Perfect Storm’ (2015) Panorama, Series 63, episode 26,
BBC One, 13 July. Available at:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b05y3fcb (Accessed: 24th
February 2017)
The difficulties for the
NHS were broadcast on
Panorama (NHS:The
Perfect Storm, 2015)
UK Statutes
(Acts of
Parliament
POST 1963)
Short title of the act and
year in italics.
Country/jurisdiction (only
if referencing more than
one country’s legislation)
Available at: URL
(Accessed: date)
Mental Health Act 1983, Available at:
http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga
/1983/20/contents (Accessed: 23rd February 2017)
In part two of legislation
on mental health (Mental
Health Act, 1983)
‘Quotation’ (Mental
Health Act, 1983, p. 12)
Films (VHS,
DVD and Blu
ray)
Title of film in italics
(Year of distribution in
round brackets) Directed
by name [DVD/Blu-ray]
Place of distribution:
distribution company
Student Paramedics (2001) Directed by James Lin [DVD].London:
Mindon Gate Films
Documentaries have been
used to undermine the
NHS (Student
Paramedics, 2001)
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