community health problems. why is lead still a major health hazard.


Lead as a Continuing Population Health Problem

Population Health Paper Instructions/ Choice of Scenarios and Directions

1. Flint, Michigan/Environmental problem: “classic” lead in drinking water case 

Your task is to research this problem and write an 8-10-page paper (12 pages maximum), answering in detail ALL the following questions contained in Sections 1-3 which start on page 2.

· Each question must be completely covered in your paper, to qualify for full points. 

· Your 8-10-page paper does NOT include your title page or your References page (both required as part of this assignment).

· Your title page is not numbered, but your References page needs to be numbered. 

· Your References page is the last page of your research report.

For your Paper, answer these questions in the order they appear below, for each section.

Section 1- Statement of the Problem

1. When and how did the problem actually first start? (Its etiology). 

2. When did people start noticing there was an environment-related problem in the community? 

3. Why is lead (in whatever form it’s found in your City’s environment) such a health status  problem?

4.  What can lead do to a child’s metal and physical development or an adult’s maintenance of  good health/health status? 

5.  Why should public health officials and professionals in the town you researched be concerned  about this particular environment-related problem from a community health status point  of view? What barriers (political, logistical, lack of political will) exist which prevent local professionals from working on the problem(s)? 

Section 2- Paper Development

1. Where is the lead-based problem located: are its effects concentrated in certain geographic  areas of the city?

2. Describe specific demographic characteristics of the population which has been most affected.

3. What current evidence-based information exists which documents the problem? (name and  discuss at least 3 different examples of evidence that the problem exists). What  documented health problems have resulted from contamination or disease/illness related to  lead-based substances?

4. What has been done about the problem in the area since it was first discovered? Has the same  problem reoccurred at any point since the problem was first “fixed”?  Describe the role of  the EPA and/or any activist local environmental groups/civic groups in and around the city  you chose to profile which have weighed in on the issue at that time, or at the present time.

5. Is there another federal or state Agency which could be brought in to help clean up this  Community problem or enforce existing anti-pollution/environmental preservation laws to  lessen the effect of the problem on affected population groups? Should there be one, if  there isn’t already one in existence? Are there private organizations dedicated to keeping  Community environments clean, that could be involved? What would it take, generally, to  ensure that the health status of the community you’re researching is kept free of identified lead contaminants?

Section 3- Conclusions and Comments.

1. Any conclusions and comments you’d like to include as you sum up your paper. 

This is an individual project, not to be done with anyone else in the class.  If you copy your work from any other source, including a fellow student in the course, a prior paper you have written for another course, or any other section of any other course at any university, you will receive a zero (0) for the paper and a grade of “F” for the course. 

Remember that you are required to use essay format only, with no use of “bullet points” or lists or things you are talking about. In writing, you must start at the top of each page, and indent each paragraph 5 spaces. There are to be 1” margins all around your paper, top, bottom and sides. There is to be no additional space at the top or the bottom of each page. The only Type font permitted is 12, with the required font type as “Times New Roman”. 

1. Your paper must use proper citations whenever anything is quoted, or ideas are used from any resource. If you forget to cite your sources, or don’t cite on purpose, that’s plagiarism! The only accepted format for citations is APA.  You must use in-text citations in addition to having a “References” page at the end of your 8-page Essay. This References page does not count toward your 8-10 page requirement for your paper.

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