ALIENATION IN THE CONTEMPORARY ORGANIZATION

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Table of Contents
SYNOPSIS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………4
INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………5
RESEARCH …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………6
WORK ALIENATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
WORK DESIGN ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
DISCUSSION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….8
ALIENATION IN THE CONTEMPORARY ORGANIZATION CONTEXT…………………………………………………………. 8
WORK DESIGN IN THE CONTEMPORARY ORGANIZATION CONTEXT ……………………………………………………… 9
CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
RECOMMENDATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
Use the space you have make it look good!
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SYNOPSIS
Purpose
The purpose of the report is to analyse and discuss two concepts, regarding Work
Alienation and Work Design critically. Work alienation is unethical and should be
eliminated in every workplace. Designing work, on the other hand, aims to increase
employee satisfaction and work performance.
Research
This part uses different evidences from various academic source to explain and further
discuss two concepts work alienation and work design theoretically.
Discussion
Work alienation is unethical and should be removed in every organization; however, that
issue still exists somewhere, especially in low-skilled and manual jobs and many
developing countries. Work design is not alienation. Improving the work design help not
only employee satisfaction and increasing productivity but also the overall performance
of the organization in the long run.
Conclusion
in the 21st century, especially in low skilled jobs and some
developing countries. Contemporary organization and HRM should eliminate it and
improve its work design process.
Recommendations
This final part provides recommendations about how organization HRM should

implement to the workplace, regarding empowering employee,
raising awareness among employee about the meaning of their

being management, implementing the personal job-fit program and running a feedback
program.
Good!
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Introduction
This report intends to explain and discuss two concepts, including Work Design and
Work Alienation in theory and the 21st-century context. Furthermore, it will demonstrate
the impact of work alienation and work design on In
reality, work alienation has a ,
which makes the employee feel disconnected to work and lead to an increase in
workforce turnover. Work design, on the other hand, is a useful tool for HRM in the
modern context, which help to maximize employee capability and motivation at work.
design program by implementing four recommendations, regarding empowering
employees,
well-being management, implementing the personal job-fit program and running a
feedback program.
New page!
6
Research on Work Alienation
work alienation ( Entfremdung )
workers in 1843 (Zoublr 2018). Hegel
stated that works were
Marx took over Hegel idea, critically developed and made a crucial distinction between
[a direct quote demands page numbers!] (Sayers 2011).
Alienation is a condition in which the individual becomes isolated and cut-off from the
production of his/her work, having given up the desire for self-expression and control
over her/his fate at work & Nelson 2014). Marx sees labours as a
distinctively human form of activity, which is a process to objectify workers in the
products.
There are four types of alienation due to (Klikauer 2013) which alienate
employees from the products, the productivity of producing, humanity and being human;
specifically:
(1) The product does not belong to the employees.
(2) The activity of production is external and separate from the employee, such that the
employee no longer controls the activity of production, but rather is controlled by it. The
relation of the employee to their own activity is an alienated activity.
(3) The worker is separated from the product of labour and the labour process itself. The
worker is separated from humanity, alienated from the characteristic activity of the
human species. The separation of the employee from the nature of human beings entails
that labour itself is alienated, and the disposition of humanity is distorted.
(4) Individual employees are estranged from every other worker, thus distorting human
relationships.
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Work Design
Work is the activity that occupies billions of people around the world, providing the
means to many materials, social and psychological ends. It also creates and sustain
community, shapes culture and accesses the viability of individuals and societies on the
social level (Cordery & Parker 2012). Work design refers to the structure, content and
configuration of individual task and roles, which is the direct representation of that
. It has an immediate influence on t
of the situation as facilitating or inhibiting the opportunity for being successful and for
experience self-worth and well-being (Erez 2010 pp. 398).
In pre-industrial society, work included indistinguishable activities. And then, it became
increasingly carried out many separate, distal and production activity. Adam Smith in the
18th century was the first one who described the productivity advantages associated with
individual labours. Later on, in the 20th century, there was Frederick Taylor (1911) with
, and Frank Gilbreth developed further work
design in an industrial setting, including job specialization and simplification. Taylorism
app
Cordery & Parker 2012). Nowadays,
the contemporary organization uses the
associated tasks and roles but also to becomes a set of recurrent behaviours expected from
an employee in a particular position.
8
Discussion on Alienation in the contemporary organization
context this is not wrong actually either way is fine!
Unlike the job dissatisfaction, alienation is defined as a cognitive, motivational response
to the work environment, characterised by disillusionment and unmet expectations.
Alienation implies a loss of self and tie up an separation
individual from other objects (such as product, production process, other species).
Eliminating alienation can make employees feel connected to their works and working
process. For example, a tradesperson who installs hardwood floors can see his or her skill
and individual style in the finish of the corners of a room; a hairdresser can style a client’s
. Or
a novelist, when reading over his or her manuscript, can experience the imprint of his or
her thoughts, moods and desires in the printed word (Shantz, Alfes & Truss 2012). Here
you discuss your findings and for that you do not need references! The discussion
part is NOT a continuation of your research! Here, readers what to know what do
YOU suggest all this means no references need to others!!!] However, eliminating
absolute alienation suits a simple task/job & creation job (artist) where the employee can
fully control the work and explore their creativities. In most of the modern works, the
company requires employees to work in a small team for a short/ long project, temporary
or permanence (Bovee & Thill 2020). For the more complex work, employees need
instruction, guideline, leadership and other supports to complete their tasks (Kozlowski
2017). The problem of work alienation persisted into 21st centuries, particularly in low
autonomy jobs. Today factors such as division of labour and the displacement of specific
skills contribute to alienation despite the automation of manual labour.
9
Work Design in the contemporary organization context
In a modern context, work design
It includes a variety of factors such as
job demands, job control, skill use, task & role, employment security and other support.
At the Industrial Revolution stage, Smith (1776) and Taylor (1911)
with job simplification is a negative outcome among employees, such as increasing
turnover and reduced mental health. Recently, a new idea about job design which many
Characteristics or JCM. The quality of work
are reliable and prospective predictors of
changes in well-being and psychological health in the workplace (Daniels al et. 2017).
The JCM states that modern work design should have five core elements: skill variety,
autonomy, feedback, task significance and task identity which will generate three states
for the outcome and understanding their efforts. Furthermore, work autonomy and
empowerment are the key motivational factors which congruent with individual values,
emphasizing freedom of choice and providing the opportunity to influence the positive or
understanding self-control which allow individually monitor and direct his/her behaviour
independent from others (Erez 2010). In the modern context, organizations tend to use
teams more than ever. Hence, works need to be designed to clarify individual tasks and
the means of their work. Employees in each team or projects will interact and connect
with others to achieve common goals, eliminate the conflicts. As a result, employees
increasing their motivation, attitude and work performance (Parker & Zhang 2016). The
(skill variety,
10
d task identity), which generate three critical
psychological states (individuals- experiencing meaning, feeling responsible for their
outcomes, and understanding the results of their efforts), thus enhancing employee
motivation, job satisfaction, and performance and reducing turnover
No references here!
Conclusion
Although writing 150 years ago, Marx ideas on alienation of labour are still
relevant to contemporary HRM practices. At the 21st century, there is still work
existing, especially in low-skilled and manual jobs and in some developing
countries, even though employees today are getting more rights and compensation from
their workplaces. the workplace, every company and
HRM should focus on improving quality of their organizational work designing to
increase job satisfaction and performance among employees, also the overall
organizational performance in the long run.
11
New page!
Recommendations
HRM plays a vital role in reducing alienation in every organization. To eliminate work
alienation and improve work design, HRM should:
(1) Empower employees helps to enhance employee- efficiency and motivation. There
are more and more companies restructure into decentralization, where employees
participate more in the decision-making process.
(2) Meaning of work: HRM should provide training and organizational learning so that
employees can find the meaning of their careers. When employees feel a sense of
purpose, they will be happier, love their jobs and increasing work performance.
(3) E well-being management means HRM should ensure their employee
feeling, happiness and healthy at the workplace. Well-being will enable employees to
overcome difficulty, achieve goals and improve their work performance. It also
increases engagement between the company and its employees.
(4) Person-job fit means HRM should measure and analyse an characteristics
and job description at the recruitment or redesigned process. It will help to maximize
individual capability, self-motivation and joy at work.
(5) Running a feedback program so that every employee can get a chance to give their
opinion and raise their voice about workplace, co-worker and themselves.
Recommendations are short actions statements outlining
And:
They need to be linked back to your research (part A) and discussion (part B).
By doing that a reader can see where the research (paet A) for this particular
recommendation is and where you have discussed (part B) the issue that leads
to this recommendation.
You need to show the link between:
discussion recommendation
For that each recommendation should have two references (p. XX; p. YY)
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References
Bovee, C & Thill, J 2020, Business in Action: Global Edition, Pearson, United Kingdom.
Cordery, J & Parker, S.K 2012, Work Design: Creating Job and Roles that Promoting
Individual Effectiveness, The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Psychology, vol.1, pp.
247 284, DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199928309.013.0009
employment practices and well-being
Journal of Ergonomics, vol. 60 (9), pp. 1177-1196, <https://doiorg.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/10.1080/00140139.2017.1303085>
Erez, M 2010, culture and job design, Journal of Organizational Behaviour, vol. 31 (2,3),
Special Issue: Putting Job Design in Context, pp. 389-400, DOI: 10.1002/job.651
Harnaus, T & Vokic
Journal of Organizational
Change Management, vol. 27 (4), pp. 615-641
Klikauer, T 2013, Marx & Alienation essays on Hegelian themes, by Sean Sayers,
Labour & Industry: a journal of the social and economic relations of work, vol. 23 (2),
pp. 182-186, DOI 10.1080/10301763.2013.819599
Enhancing the Effectiveness of Work Groups and Teams: a
Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), pp. 205 212.
DOI: 10.1177/1745691617697078.
& Nelson, L 2014, Alienation: An old concept with contemporary
relevance for human resource management, International Journal of Organizational
Analysis, vol. 22 (3), pp. 301- 316, DOI: 10.1108/IJOA-01-2012-0541
Psychological Factors at Work in
the Asian Pacific, pp.135-150, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-44400-0_7
Sayers, S 2011, Alienation as a Critical Concept in Marx and Alienation. Palgrave
Macmillan, London, pp. 78-100.
Shantz, A, Alfes, K & Truss, C 2012, Alienation from work: Marxist ideologies and
twenty-first-century practice, The International Journal of Human Resource
Management, vol. 25 (18), pp. 2529-2599, DOI: 10.1080/09585192.2012.667431
-58
The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought, vol. 25 (5),
pp. 710-737, <https://doi-org.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/10.1080/09672567.2018.1523935>
Li, X. & Qian, J. 2016, “STIMULATING EMPLOYEES’ FEEDBACK-SEEKING
BEHAVIOR: THE ROLE OF PARTICIPATIVE DECISION MAKING”, Social
Behavior and Personality, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 1-8. DOI:10.2224/sbp.2016.44.1.1
13
Overall, this is a good report some minor problems but overall good:
Report 15 / 13

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